District courts are the general procedural courts of the federal judicial system. Each district court has at least one U.S. District Judge appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate for life. District courts handle trials within the federal judicial system – both civil and criminal. The counties are the same as those of U.S. prosecutors, and the U.S. attorney is the chief prosecutor of the federal government in its respective territory. The general power of a court to hear and/or “decide” a legal issue is called “jurisdiction”. In the United States, jurisdiction is granted to a court or judicial system by law or constitution. A court has jurisdiction only in cases the subject matter of which falls within the jurisdiction of the court. A judicial decision of a court that did not have jurisdiction is considered null and void and non-binding on the parties to the proceedings.
The structure and websites of the various regional courts are available here. What varies greatly from state to state is whether judicial elections involve partisan politics. In some States, partisan politics plays a direct role in the judicial system; In other states, a judicial candidate`s party affiliation is treated as private information (e.g., religious affiliation) that is not disclosed in campaign profiles. States also differ significantly in that they allow candidate judges to “promote” their candidacy and/or raise campaign funds. First, it is important to understand jurisdiction: the power of a court to hear cases and make legal decisions. Jurisdiction relates not only to the geographic scope of a court, but also to whether there is a federal or state issue. If one of the litigants is not satisfied with the lower court`s decision, the case can be appealed (but an acquittal in criminal proceedings cannot be challenged by the state on the basis of the Fifth Amendment`s protection from double jeopardy). Usually, if there is one in that state, often referred to as the state appeals court, an intermediate appellate court will review the trial court`s decision. If the litigant is still not satisfied, he or she can appeal to the state`s highest appellate court, which is usually referred to as the state`s highest court and is usually located in or near the state capital. Appellate courts in the United States, unlike their civil law counterparts, are generally not allowed to correct errors regarding the facts of the appeal case, only errors of law or findings of fact without assistance in the trial court case.
The vast majority of non-criminal cases in the United States are handled by state courts rather than federal courts. For example, in Colorado, about 97 percent of all civil cases were filed in state courts, and 89 percent of civil cases filed in federal courts were bankruptcies in 2002, a typical year. Only 0.3 percent of civil non-bankruptcy cases in the state were filed in federal court. State courts employ a large number of auxiliary staff, who are usually civil servants paid by taxpayers` money. In general, the staff of a judge may include one or more private assistants, clerks, court reporters, bailiffs and other judicial officials, as well as clerks. The most important administrative office of the courthouse is that of the clerk. It is the office that stamps and dates all lawsuits, serves the trial (or reviews the parties` proceedings department), issues legal opinions, summons witnesses, summons and prepares jurors, and sends sheriffs or other court officials to enforce enforcement orders to recover unpaid sentences. The state`s judicial system is organized in a hierarchy and includes superior courts (which act as courts of first instance) and a state high court. As a rule, judges are elected to state courts. To understand the function and scope of state courts, it is necessary to consider them in relation to the federal judicial system expressly established in Article III of the United States Constitution.
Section III also specifies the type of cases that federal courts may hear and decide (“federal jurisdiction”). Many States have courts of limited jurisdiction (lower court), which are headed, for example, by a judge or justice of the peace, who hears criminal proceedings and hears minor offences and small civil cases. Appeals from courts of limited jurisdiction are often referred to the courts of first instance of States with general jurisdiction rather than to a court of appeal. Many states have separate probate courts that focus on specific administrative issues. Each state manages its judicial system differently than its neighbor: the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land in the United States. It creates a system of federal government in which power is shared between the federal and state governments. Because of federalism, the federal government and each of the state governments have their own judicial systems. Discover the differences in structure, selection of judges and cases heard in the two systems. The parties have the possibility to request the highest court of the State to hear the case.
Often, a plaintiff may bring a case to state or federal court because it arises from federal law or involves a significant currency dispute (over $75,000 as of October 26, 2007) that arises under state law between parties who are not residents of the same state.